Title Instructor Credit
Academic Legal Writing and Research

This course is designed for students who are already familiar with the basics of academic writing but aim to improve their authoring skills. Issues covered include: writing styles, managing readers’ expectations, organizing and structuring texts, writing in different formats. The course is organized as an interactive workshop and will encourage students to both present samples of their own written work and to critique and edit the work of others.

Sejal Parmar
Mathias Möschel
Charlotte Steinorth
Accountability for War Crimes

Individuals are increasingly subject to prosecution for violations of international humanitarian law (the law of armed conflict), both in national courts and, now more prominently, in international tribunals. The case of General Pinochet of Chile is the most famous example of the first type of jurisdiction. The cases of Slobodan Milosevic of Serbia and Charles Taylor of Liberia illustrate the latter. Within the coming five years the International Criminal Court will effectively be the only international criminal tribunal.

Richard Goldstone 2.0
Advanced Public International Law

The course takes an in-depth look at global contemporary issues from an international legal perspective and critically engages with the complex interaction of legal regimes regulating behaviour across borders and facilitating communal action. Substantive areas covered in this course include international legal efforts to respond to the threats posed by environmental degradation, the rise of piracy, and the use of weapons of mass destruction.

Marjan Ajevski 1.0
Analysis of Antitrust and Industrial Policy in the USA and the European Union

introducing the students into some of the
most important fields of regulation and competitiveness-enhancing
policies in the EU and the United States, and also in the transition
countries: industrial policy and competition policy (antitrust) – this course
with its strong policy focus complements the theoretically oriented topics
offered to the students.

Ádám Török
Anglo-American Legal Concepts

The structure, methodology, and some institutions of the Anglo-American legal system differ considerably from the "civil law" of Europe, South America, and parts of Asia. Since the IBL program introduces many substantive law subjects from the perspective of American law, it is important to become familiar early with how a common law legal system works: the central role of the "case law," the analysis of cases to determine their actual "holdings," the reach of "precedent" and of "res judicata", as well the structure of the American court system.

Peter Hay 1.0
Archives, Evidence and Human Rights

The Open Society Archives (, one of the most significant Cold War and human rights archives in the world, offers a two-credit interdisciplinary course to the students of the Human Rights Program of the Legal Studies Department. The course includes an introduction to the history and philosophy of preserving recorded memory and gives an overview of the basic functions and types of modern human rights archives.

Iván Székely
Csaba Szilágyi
András Mink
Article 8 of the ECHR: Core Concepts and New Dimensions

Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights essentially guarantees the right to respect for private and family, home and correspondence. Despite the clear wording of the text, the European Court of Human Rights developed an immense and diverse jurisprudence encompassing several aspects of these rights that seemingly go beyond the scope of Article 8. The course aims at providing a case-based overview of this evolution and illustrate how the traditional understanding of the right to private and family life (e.g.

Eszter Polgari 1.0
Asylum, Refugees

After a relative calm period in the early 2000s the plight of refugees and internally displaced persons is on the front pages of newspapers again. More than 3 million have fled Syria, the Southern shores and eastern borders of the European Union are crossed by tens of thousand of undocumented people undertaking extremely perilous (and often fatal) journeys.

Is universal refugee law offering an adequate answer? Can it, at all? Did the European Union remain faithful to its traditions of protecting the vulnerable, offering safety to the refugees of  non-democratic regimes?

Boldizsár Nagy 1.0
Banking and Financial Institutions

Introducing students to the economics of financial institutions and
intermediaries, their markets and behavior, current thinking in financial
economics regarding these institutions, especially in a time of financial crisis.

Steven Plaut
Capital Markets and Securities Regulation

The aim of this two-credit course is to provide the students with a solid understanding of the fundamental institutions, problems and solutions connected to the world of capital markets and in particular with the tasks imposed on the regulatory bodies in shaping and enforcing the related regulations in market economies.

Tibor Tajti 2.0
Children's Rights and Juvenile Justice

The course will address the question if there is genuine need to have special human rights instruments for specific groups including children ? Further the universal/local dilemma will be discussed with regard to children's rights. Following an overview of the development of international instruments the unique nature of the Convention on the Rights of the Child will be discussed.

Károly Bárd 1.0
Civil Rights and Liberties in the UK

This course examines the protection of human rights in the UK under the Human Rights Action 1998 (HRA) since its entry into force on 2 October 2000. The course analyses the core provisions of the HRA and the obligations (upon the judiciary and public authorities) that it established. Drawing on the case law of UK courts across a range of civil and political rights, the course assesses the impact of the HRA upon the protection of these rights in the UK.

Sejal Parmar 1.0
Clinical Course

The Comparative Constitutional Law and the Human Rights Programs offer their degrees with a clinical specialization. Students participating in the clinical course will work closely with lawyers, providing comparative legal research as required by the progress of the case. Clinical courses are organized around two intensive workshops and require substantive individual research throughout the academic year.

Károly Bárd 3.0
Comparative Antitrust Law

Antitrust/competition law is one of the most globalized fields of law, certainly because it uses the same world language: economics. Nevertheless, under the surface of superficial unity, competition laws diverge significantly in terms of legal thinking, analytical structure and burden of proof.

Csongor Nagy 1.0
Comparative Bankruptcy Law

Bankruptcy law is often unduly neglected irrespective of its crucial role in times of economic growth as well as crisis. Its importance was, for example, noted by UNCITRAL solely in the second half of the 1990s (1997 Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency), though ever since heightened attention has been given to it (2004 – Legislative Guide on Insolvency Law and 2009 Practice Guide on Cross-Border Insolvency Cooperation).

Tibor Tajti 1.0
Comparative Equality

Equality rights are potentially the most broadly encompassing among fundamental rights. This is because all laws classify. Either a person treated differently may claim an entitlement to being treated the same, or a person treated the same as others may claim that he or she is entitled to different treatment as an equal.

Michel Rosenfeld 1.0
Comparative Freedom of Religion

The first part of the course will be taught by Professor Durham, and will introduce students to the international norms that provide for the protection of freedom of religion or belief. The course will analyze the key relevant norms in the UN system, under the European Convention, within the OSCE, and within other regional human rights systems. Particular attention will be paid to relevant decisions of the UN Human Rights Committee and the European Court of Human Rights.

Cole Durham
Brett Scharffs
Comparative Law of Sales

The course will compare and contrast the United Nations Convention on the International Sale of Goods (“CISG”), the Uniform Commercial Code, especially Article 2, (“UCC”) from the United States, the common law, and various aspects of the civil law in the treatment of transactions for the sale of goods. There will be occasional references to the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Transactions. The course is oriented around sets of problems, and each problem has been derived from a real case.

Howard Hunter 1.0
Comparative Secured Transactions

The course is a comparative survey of leading secured transactions laws (known also as: credit-securing law or personal property security law), one of the sine qua non branches of law of developed market economies. Additionally, this branch of law has been in the center of interest on the international scene since the fall of the Berlin Wall and underwent reforms on all continents.

Tibor Tajti 2.0
Comparative Social Protection

The special character of the course – bringing human rights and business law ideas and students into one class – is based on the close interrelationship between social protection and social security on the one hand and the sound operation of the market under guarantees of political democracy and the guarantee of human rights on the other.

Csilla Kollonay-Lehoczky 1.0
Competition Law of the EU

This course aims at giving students an insight in the fundamental principles and techniques of European competition law, with a focus on antitrust (restrictive agreements and dominant positions) and merger control. It will discuss some important cases of the European Court of Justice and decisions of the European Commission applying the competition rules as well as the most important pieces of legislation and quasi legislation in this field.

Jules Stuyck 1.0
Computer Based Legal Research

Understanding legal language and terms of art is essential to success in all types of legal settings and endeavors. This course will help students understand legal terms in English by introducing and discussing fundamental concepts of the (mostly U.S.) common law system though reading court decisions. Students will develop and sharpen their skills required for taking notes on cases and writing case-briefs.

SJD candidate 0.0
Computer Based Legal Research

This course consists of one session of presentation combined with on hand practise in computer labs. The aim of the session is to teach students how to conduct a research online, within a reasonable time frame.

SJD candidates 0.0
Computer Based Legal Research

This course will develop the students’ skill in understanding and using legal terminology in English by introducing and discussing fundamental concepts mostly through reading court decisions. In addition, students will develop skills required to recognize and understand case-law, that implies comprehensive understanding of court cases principally in common law and European legal systems.

SJD candidate 1.0
Computer Based Legal Research

The course aims at providing an introduction to the use of key legal databases available through the library.

SJD Candidate 1.0
Constitution Building in Africa

History has seen several waves of constitution-building in the 20th Century with an unparalleled bloom starting in the 1990ies after the fall of the Berlin wall. And while experts recently announced the end of this bloom in new constitutions after the Cold War, the world witnesses another wave of constitution-building, this time predominately in Africa. Quite prominent are the current dynamics in the Maghreb as a result of the Arab spring.

Markus Böckenförde
Gedion Hessebon
Constitutional Adjudication

The course will deal with the distinction between the scope of rights, their limits and the limits on the limits.  We will discuss questions concerning scope of rights, definite or prima facia characters of the rights and the distinction between positive and negative rights.

Aharon Barak 1.0
Constitutionalism and Rights Adjudication in South and South East Asia

This course seeks to provide an overview of the theory and practice of constitutionalism in four countries that are located in South and South East Asia: India, Indonesia, Singapore and Sri Lanka.  Two of these are among the largest, most pluralistic nations in the world, while the remaining two are small island states.  All four nations experienced long periods of colonial rule, which continues to have a decisive impact on their post-colonial legal and constitutional orders.  Further, in each of these nations, discussions about constitutionalism have become enmeshed within larger societal

Arun Thiruvengadam 1.0
Consumer Protection

A continuous, hefty expansion of mass distribution of goods and services, the increased volume of cross-border commerce, and the growing unbalance in the bargaining powers of producers and consumers engendered a heated debate on whether and to which extent legislators should intervene to regulate the market and protect weaker parties.

Caterina Sganga 1.0
Contract Theory and Property Rights

The course introduces the main problems of the economics of property rights
and contracts.  We will start by considering incomplete transaction cost and contract theories
focusing on the efficient arrangements that arise under alternative
technological characteristics of the economy including the human capital
endowments of the agents. We will extend the assumptions concerning the
incompleteness of contracts and examine the feedback of ownership
arrangements on property rights. The understanding of the multiplicity of

Ugo Pagano
Contracts - Introduction with a Focus on Civil Law

This course provides an introduction to the contract laws of two major civil law jurisdictions: France and Germany. By way of introduction, it discusses the historical development and principal characteristic features of the Code civil and the BGB. It then provides an overview of some fundamental aspects of French and German contract law including (1) contract formation; (2) requirements for contract validity; (3) the legal effects of contracts; (4) remedies for non-performance; and (5) exemptions from liability on the basis of impossibility and hardship.

Markus Petsche 1.0
Contracts - Introduction with Focus on Common Law

The course covers the main features of common law contracts. After a glimpse back in centuries, useful to understand the origin of the great divide between the continental and the Anglo-Saxon approach to the subject, and an overview over general definitions and applicable laws, we will first analyze the distinction between enforceable and unenforceable promises.

Caterina Sganga 0.0
Corporate Governance

Corporate governance has time and again been the subject of extensive scrutiny. This course will focus on the U.S. approach to corporate governance, control, and accountability. It will introduce students to the legal rules and principles, as well as some of the eco­nomic factors, that affect the conduct of productive enterprise in the United States.  A principal focus will be on large, publicly-traded corporations that dominate much of the U.S. business environ­ment – in particular, its control and the potentially conflicting interests that the corporate form must mediate.

Charles Whitehead 1.0
Courts in Dialogue

International judicial dialogue has grown to become an essential feature of the international human rights regime. The course will explore the advantages and limits of international judicial cooperation through the lens of the European system. The course will allow first hand insight into the operation of the European Court of Human Rights and into judicial decision-making from numerous perspectives (from the bench as well as from the Registry). Organized in Strasbourg, at the seat of the European Court of Human Rights, the course is open to a select group of students.

András Sajó 1.0
Courts in Dialogue

International judicial dialogue has grown to become an essential feature of the international human rights regime. The course will explore the advantages and limits of international judicial cooperation through the lens of the European system. The course will allow first hand insight into the operation of the European Court of Human Rights and into judicial decision-making from numerous perspectives (from the bench as well as from the Registry). Organized in Strasbourg, at the seat of the European Court of Human Rights, the course is open to a select group of students.

András Sajó 1.0
Critical Perspectives on Human Rights

While the (success) story of human rights has generally been celebrated as one of moral progress, a growing body of critical literature is challenging this dominant narrative pointing to the limits and shortcomings of the human rights project. The course will explore diverse critiques of the contemporary human rights regime and highlight ambivalences and blind spots of human rights scholarship and practice.

Charlotte Steinorth 1.0
Critical Race Theory: Race and Law from the United States to Europe

Critical Race Theory emerged in American legal academia at the end of the 1980s as a critique of the limitations both of orthodox liberal civil rights scholarship and of the failure to address race by scholars belonging to Critical Legal Studies. Since then, critical race theorists have developed a rich body of scholarship and critique.

Mathias Möschel 1.0
Designing and Implementing Human Rights Projects

This course is a practical opportunity to conduct research on different human rights issues that OSI programs and other Budapest-based NGOs are dealing with and to develop advocacy strategies on how to remedy the situation from a civil society perspective with the help of mentors experienced in the field. 

Károly Bárd 1.0
Development of Legal Systems: Historical Context

This introductory course aims to provide historical background for understanding of influences on the development of major legal traditions. Students are invited to interpret legal documents as both outcomes and creators of historical processes. This approach strives to help students understand the dual nature of legal and constitutional texts - being historical text written in a particular historical situation, on the one hand, and being normative and timelessly conceived legally binding documents.

Vladimir Petrovic 0.0
Drafting and Negotiating International Contracts

Drafting contracts, and in particular international contracts, is a risky business. It is rather a skill developed through experience and not something that can easily be acquired through reading textbooks. Drafting an agreement is often one of the most difficult tasks confronting a young practitioner. The same is true of negotiating such contracts. The course is structured as follows: 

Part A:

Hans-Eric Rasmussen-Bonne 1.0
Economics of Law

This course is mandatory for MA students in Economic and Legal Studies and elective for the other students.

Andrzej Baniak
Economics of Regulation Gergely Csorba
Elements of Comparative Constitutional Law

This course will look at the basic methodologies, notions and institutions of comparative constitutional law.

Mathias Möschel 1.0
Energy Policy

This course introduces students to a global perspective on energy policy. Starting from the observation that the world will remain “hooked” on fossil fuels for decades to come, the course deliberately focuses on oil and gas, and developments affecting the consumption, production, trade or pricing of these commodities.

Andreas Goldthau
Equal Opportunity Law

Traditional and recent views on the concept of "equality" and "equal opportunity" are confronted in the course. Starting from basic terms of equality protection it introduces students to the dynamics and developing layers of the concept from non-discrimination to substantive equality, of the progress from numerical to substantive diversity of societies and social groups.

Csilla Kollonay-Lehoczky 1.0
Equal Opportunity Law

The course on equal opportunity in employment confronts traditional and more recent views on the concept of "equality" and "equal opportunity". It describes basic terms of equal protection by the law (with particular respect to the possible grounds of discrimination) in an international prospective.

Csilla Kollonay-Lehoczky 1.0
EU Constitutional Law - Advanced

The course consists of fourteen class hours dedicated to providing an in depth analysis of the constitutional law of the European Union. The course is intended to focus on major themes within the Union’s constitutional in order to answer the question “What kind of polity is the European Union?” The course will focus on two main areas: institutional and political matters (the role of the Court and relationships between the Union and Member States), fundamental values of the Union (democracy, citizenship, equality and secularism).

Ronan McCrea 1.0
EU Criminal Justice

The course consists of fourteen class hours dedicated to providing a thorough and practical introduction into European Union criminal justice. The course is offered to comparative constitutional law and human rights law students. The course is embedded in the general framework of the balance drawn between human rights and civil liberties on the one hand and public order, public security, crime prevention and prosecution on the other.

Petra Bard 1.0
EU Human Rights Law and Policy

The European Union’s action for the protection and promotion of human rights operates within a complex normative and institutional environment. Despite an original lack of competence in human rights, the European Union has nonetheless gradually developed mechanisms for the protection and promotion of human rights by the Union and its member states. Yet, the EU often faces sometimes strong criticism over its handling of human rights matters.

Marie-Pierre F. Granger 2.0
EU Non-Discrimination Law

The course presents the students with a short view of the development of non-discrimination law in Europe that has grown to a voluminous area of law (norms and case law) in the last one and a half decade not only the through progress of the European Union, but also the concept and scope of non-discrimination in the European human rights conventions, such as the ECHR (Art. 14) and the (Revised) European Social Charter. Protocol no. 12 to the ECHR has to be mentioned, the “Article 13 Directives” of the EU (let alone Art.

Csilla Kollonay-Lehoczky 1.0